This classification presents basic information on the plant species and families grown on the territory of the University Botanic Garden –Sofia.You can get information here about the names and morphological traits of both local and foreign plants, as well as about their origin, distribution, use and preservation.
The detailed illustrations and curious facts are intended to provoke (deepen) your interest in botany and your knowledge of plants.
The plant collection of the University Botanic Garden – Sofia is a constantly growing resource, so remember to constantly keep checking for new information.
The Acanthaceaeare dicotyledonous flowering plants.The members of the family include approximately 250 genera and over 2,500 species.They are most often herbaceous, shrubs, twining vines and rarely – small trees.Among themcan be seen lianas, xerophytes and marsh plants.Some species have bright colorful leaves (the genus ... [more]
The members of the sycamore family are deciduous trees or bushes with opposite simple or complex leaves.The blossoms are bisexual and rarely unisexual, with monoecious or dioecious placement, and gathered in inflorescences.The fruit is a dry samara with the angle between the wings being a characteristic sign for the different species. Of the two genera belonging to the family – Acer and Dipteronia, of importance for this country is only the Acer genus – sycamore or maple. Of it, 7 species are naturally spread throughout the territory of this country.
Adiantaceae is a family of fern plants belonging to the order of Pteridales.The family includes also species earlier incorporated within the Vittariaceaefamily.
Representative of the family is the Adiantum capillus-veneris Lspecies (Vittaria appalachiana)listed in the Red Book of Bulgaria as a critically endangered species. ... [more]
Agavaceaeis a family of monocot flowering plants the order of Asparagales. It includes 550 species incorporated in 18 genera,primarily desert and dry zone types, spread in the tropical, subtropical and warm moderate regions of the world.The family consists mostly of plants with a very well developed root or stem. Agavaceae are ... [more]
The family consists of 135 genera and around 1,900 species dicotyledonous flowering succulent plants.It includes a variety of species and forms distributed in deserts and rocky areas in America, Africa, Australia, and Asia.
Some varieties of the Aizoaceae family such as Delosperma N.E.Br., Lithops N.E.Br., Conophytum N.E.Br., Messembryanthemum N.E.Br., Faucaria Tisch etc. are been widely distributed.
The Alliaceae family consists primarily of herbaceous monocotperennial plants. These belong to the orderof Asparagales.
In the beginning, and by some botanist even today, the plants in this family have often been classified in theLiliaceaefamily.Lately, has been accepted the view thatAlliaceae is actually a subfamily of the ... [more]
The Aloaceae family includes 7 genera and approximately 450 species of succulent plants.The region of Central and South Africa is characterized by the greatest diversity of representatives of this family of plants.
The genus within the family richest in species is the Aloe genus (Aloe).It includes around 180 species distributed ... [more]
The family numbers approximately 160 genera and 2400 species.Most of these species are herbaceous plants or semi-bushes, with very few among them being trees and lianas.Representatives are spread primarily in subtropical and tropical regions although many of the species also endure moderate climate conditions.
The leaves are alternate or opposite, solitary or multiple, the lamina is whole, not cut. The racemes are herbaceous or scarious. The fruit is a capsule, rarely a tiny nut or berry-like. Many types are halophytes (growing in salty soils).
The Amaryllis family consists of angiosperm of perennial monocot herbaceous plants. The family is represented by some 60 genera and 900 species.
The Amaryllis plants are bulb ones with linear leaves stemming from the root. The flowers are bisexual, regular, arranged in umbels at the apex of the leafless flowering stems.They ... [more]
The species within this family are evergreen or deciduous trees and shrubs.The leaves are simple or complex.The flowers are unisexual or bisexual, the calyxes are 3-5 lobbed, the petals are free, the stamens are 5 or10in number.The fruit is a drupe or a nut. The plants are pollinated by wind or insects. They propagate via seeds ... [more]
Oleanders, commonly called the dogbane family, are a family of angiosperm that consists of herbs, shrubs, trees and lianas.The family numbers around 1,500 species divided in 424 genera. Many of the tree species in the family are characteristic of the tropical rain forests, yet most are distributed in the tropics and subtropics ... [more]
The ilex or holly family includes some 400 species of flowering plants.Almost all species in this family belong to one genus - Holly.Most of them are evergreen shrubs or trees although there are also some deciduous species.It is believed the ilex family originates in North America and Europe, and today there are such plants ... [more]
Araceae is a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants. It includes over 100 genera and more than 3,700 species, the largest diversity found in the tropical areas of America.
These are perennial herbaceous plants, primarily trees, lianas and epiphytes, more rarely aquatic plants.The leaves are alternate with a stem.The leaf blade is broadly perforated.The flowers are small, bisexual with weakly developed perianth or unisexual without a perianth gathered in a spadix. The stamens are 6, 4 or 2. The fruits are berries.
The Ivy family consists of 43 genera and over 1,450 species.These are climbing or creeping shrubs with aerial roots and simple whole and divided into 3-5 lobs,leathery, evergreen leaves.The flowers are regular, bisexual and gathered in umbrelliferous or cluster-like racemes.The calyx and petal consist of 5 yellow-green leaflets; ... [more]
Araucariaceae is a family of coniferous plants that includes three genera and 41 species existing today.
Araucariaceae had a great variety of genera during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods when they were spread throughout the world. At the end of the Cretaceous period, approximately at the time the dinosaurs became extinct, ... [more]
The Arecaceae are a family of monocot plants consisting of approximately 210 genera and 3,000 species.It is difficult to cite more precise numbers because of scientific corrections in the systemic classification, as well as the addition of newly found unknown as yet species.The genera and species differ from one another primarily ... [more]
Contemporary classifications of plants include the Asclepiadaceae family as a subfamily of the Apocynaceae.
Asclepiadaceae is a family represented by tropical and subtropical shrubs, semi-shrubs, lianas and rarely trees with erect or climbing stems. Most species are spread throughout Africa. They have simple leaves that are ... [more]
The Asparagaceaefamily numbers 153genera and 2,480 species dispersed all over the world except for the polar widths. South Africa is native to 29 genera and 769 species of all the members of the family.
The Asparagaceaeplants are characterized with signs close to those describing the Liliaceaefamily. The small in size flowers ... [more]
Aspleniaceae are a family of perennial herbaceous ferns. At present it is considered that the family consists of a genus (Asplenium) and some 28 species. The members of the family are distributed throughout the world.
The stems are erect or semi-erect, rarely long, creeping, scaly, radially symmetric. The leaves are monomorphic ... [more]
The family consists of approximately 1,620 genera, 23,000 species and 12 subfamilies.The Asteraceaefamily consists of annual and perennial herbaceous plants, more rarely semi-shrubs, shrubs or trees. The leaves are mostly sequential, but can also be opposite or arranged in a rosette. Characteristic of the family is the raceme ... [more]
The family consists of approximately1,400species of annual and perennial flowering plants.They are herbaceous semi-shrubs and low shrubs naturally spread in the tropical and sub tropical regions of America, Africa, South East, Asia, the island of Madagascar, and elsewhere.The Begoniaceaefamily is named after the Governor of ... [more]
These are shrubs, semi-shrubs or herbaceous plants. The leaves are arranged alternately or in a base rosette,they aresimple or complex undivided often sharply cut in thorns.The flowers are bisexual, regular, single or gathered in racemes.The leaves surrounding the flower are6-12, usually arranged in 4 circles, free falling, ... [more]
The Betulaceaefamily includes deciduous trees and shrubs with simple and alternately located leaves. The flowers are unisexual and monocot. They are gathered in racemes lying on the main axis below the first flower where there are two axes ending in a flower in dichasial cymes. Most often these are grouped in tassels. The fruit ... [more]
The members of the Bignoniaceae family are primarily tropical trees and shrubs and include approximately 113 genera, and800 species. Usually the leaves are opposite and large, without stipules.The flowers are bisexual and zygomorphic. The calyx has five sepals.The corolla has five petals and is often bilabial. The number of ... [more]
Blechnaceae is a family of fern plants that has from 2 to 9 genera genera and between 240-260 species of plants. The family belongs to the Polypodialesorder, classPolypodiopsida. Most of them are terrestrial plants, while others are climbing plants (as the ones in the Stenochlaena J.Sm.genus). The ferns in this family have stiff, ... [more]
The Bombacaceae family includes 30 genera and approximately 250 species of deciduous or coniferous tropical trees.The leaves in the better part of the species are simple, and the flowers are usually regular (actinomorphic) and bisexual. Flowers are usually short lived Flowersте обикновено са краткотрайни (they exist just one ... [more]
The Boraginaceaeis a family of angiosperm with cosmopolitan distribution the largest number being in the Mediterranean region.
They are annual or perennial primarily herbaceous plants, covered with rough, prickly hairs (from where the name is derived). The flowers are simple, uncut, without stipules, alternately arranged. The ... [more]
The crucifers are a family of angiosperm plants that has 380 genera and around 3,000 species. They are primarily herbaceous plants and grow in regions with different altitude. Predominant are species adapted to dry or arid habitats. The flowers are consecutive and without stipules. The flowers are bisexual, regular, gathered ... [more]
Bromeliads are afamily that consists of approximately 3,170 species of perennial angiosperm that are distributed primarily in the tropical regions of America and West Africa. Bromeliadsare epiphytes (organisms that live attached to other live plants).There are terrestrial species, as well as succulent plants distributed in the ... [more]
Buxaceae are a small family consisting of four or five genera and around 90-120 species of plants. They are evergreen shrubs and small trees spread throughout the Northern hemisphere and also growing in the Andes, in South America, Madagascar – South Africa, and Southeast Asia.
Widely used in Bulgaria as an ornamental ... [more]
Cacti are called all members of the family of angiosperm (Cactaceae). The family is very rich in genera and species (more than120 genera with over 2,400 species).
Visually, cacti are quite different from the other plants. This is due to the fact they are adapted to life in the desert and semi-desert regions and to the prolonged ... [more]
This family includes both deciduous and evergreen shrubs with opposite simple leaves. The flowers are aromatic bisexual single. The flowers are aromatic, bisexual, and single with a petal-shaped perianth, colored from white to red.The plants reach a height of 2 to 4 meters.
The family is represented by 3 genera and 10 species that are naturally spread in warm climates in the tropical climatic zones of the world. The Calycanthaceaefamily members originate from Japan, North America and Northeast Australia.In this country of greater significance is the species blossoming or magnificent Calycanthus floridus L.
The Caprifoliaceae family consists of angiosperm plants divided in approximately 25 genera of shrubs and lianas, more rarely herbaceous plants distributed all over the world, except for the tropical regions of Africa and with the greatest concentration in the eastern parts of North America and in Asia.The leaves are simple or ... [more]
The Papaya family consists of tropical and subtropical low monocot trees and shrubs spread throughout America and Africa.Some of the branches of the plants are thorny. The leaves are simple of the palmate type. The flowers are unisexual or bisexual, gathered in axillary cyme, cluster or brush-like inflorescences. The fruit are large, juicy and berry-shaped.A better known member of the family is the papaya, melon tree (Carica papaya L.) with a popular edible tropical fruit and more than 1,000 varieties.
Celastraceaeare a family of angiosperm plants of theCelastralesorder. The family includes approximately 100 genera, and 1,300 species of lianas, shrubs and small trees most of which grow in the tropical regions of the world.
Commelinaceae is the most numerous of the five families belonging to the Commelinalesorder. It includes some 700species in 50 genera that are distributed primarily in the tropical regions.
Many of the members of the family are herbaceous plants grown for ornamental purposes.Their stems are usually well developed, often swollen ... [more]
The members of the family are spread primarily in the Northern hemisphere. Convallariaceae includes perennial rhizome herbaceous plants.They are characterized with simple, uncut, oblong egg-shaped leaves. The flowers are bisexual, with cyme (top) racemes. Pollination is primarily done entomophilically (via insects). The fruit is berry-like or a succulent capsule. The species contain alkaloids and are applied in medicine.
In older classifications the family included also the Liliaceae orAsparagaceaefamilies, while in other newer ones it was part of the Ruscaceaefamily.
The Cornaceae(Cornel-tree) are a family of angiosperm plants of the Cornalesorder. It includes primarily shrubs and trees dispersed mostly in the moderate climate regions of the Northern hemisphere. The family comprises of approximately 110 species. The leaves are most often simple and oppositely arranged upon the stem. The flowers are more often gathered, 4-5 lobed.They blossom in February and March. The fruits are spherical or oblong, red, bluish-black to light blue drupe.It is spread in the woody areas of the whole country, up to 1,300meters of altitude.
The Crassulaceaeare a family of dicotyledon plants and it includes about 1,400species spread all over the world except in Australia, being most typical for the Northern hemisphere and South Africa.
The leaves are succulent, simple and without stipules. The flowers are regular, bisexual, in a cluster, sorghum or shield racemepollinated entomophilically. The fruit is a pericarpium.
Many species are used as ornamental plants.
The members of the Cypress family are monoecious or dioecious evergreen trees or shrubs spread throughout the world classified in 27 to30 genera. The leaves are oppositely or vertebra-like arranged. They are scaly or needle-shaped. The cones are tiny, and their scales are formed by almost complete adhesion of the cover ones ... [more]
Cycadaceae are gymnosperms plants, members of fossil forms that existed during the Mesozoic period. The Sago palms are one of the first inhabitants of mainland due to their way of propagation – a process that does not depend on water.After a turbulent development at the end of the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic periods the mass ... [more]
The Cyperaceaeare a family of angiosperm plants from the Poalesorder. It includes around 120 genera with approximately 5,600 species distributed all over the world with greatest concentration in the tropical regions of Africa and South America.
The family includes perennial or annual herbaceous plants. The stem is three-ridged thick, rarely cylindrical, with nodes in the base. The leaves are at the base, alternate, with closed stigma. The flowers are regular, bisexual or unisexual, gathered in a complex class, sorghum, umbel or head. The fruit is three-walled nut and in female flowers it is in a purse.
Davalliaceaeare fern plants belonging to the Polypodialesorder. The members of the family are close relatives to the numerous family of the Polypodiaceaeand have similar morphological traits with them.
Davalliaceaeoriginate in the tropical and subtropical regions of Australia, Asia and Africa. The members of the family are ... [more]
Dryopteridaceaeis a family of ferns of the Polypodialesorder. They number around 1,700 species and have a cosmopolitan distribution. They are distinguished by their one-cell sporangia (an organ for asexual reproduction.)
Member of the family is the Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott(‘male’ fern). It is a perennial ... [more]
The Ebenaceaeis a family of plants includes approximately 500 species. It consists of low trees and more rarely of shrubs. The leaves are simple, alternately arranged and leathery. The flowers are most often solitary or in inflorescences. Pollination is entomophilic (in plants pollinated by insects). The fruit is berry-like.
Many of the species provide valuable timber. They grow primarily in the subtropical and tropical regions and partially in the moderate climate zone. A well known member is the persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.), grown in the southern parts of Bulgaria.
The Elaeagnaceaefamily includes small trees and shrubs. They are dispersed primarily in the Northern hemisphere – in the moderate climate zone, also to be found in the south in tropical Asia and Australia. The family consists of 3 genera, and 50species.
The leaves are simple elliptic or lanceolate, the flowers – solitary or several arranged within the part of the leaves.The branches have thorns or spikes.
Most species are xerophytes – dry-resistant plants. There are also halophytes that exhibiting tolerance to high soil salinity.
The Ericaceae family is represented by 100 genera and around 3,000 species.In it are included shrubs with alternate, simple, often evergreen and sometimes needle-shaped leaves without stipules. The flowers are regular, bisexual, solitary or gathered in various racemes. The sepals and petals are 4-5 each, joined. The number of ... [more]
The Euphorbiaceae family consists of 300 genera and approximately 7,500 species of plants. They come from the subtropical regions of Africa, Madagascar and America. This numerous family includes herbaceous plants, semi-shrubs, shrubs and trees. The flowers are unisexual, regular with a double, simple or underdeveloped perianth. The stamens are from 1 to around300 in number. The fruit-vessel consists of 3 joined carpels with 3 bipartite tiny poles at the top. The fruit decomposes itself in 3 parts. They contain milkyjuice that is quite varied in composition – resins, rubber, proteins, sugars, starchy seeds with a particular form etc.
The members of the bean family are herbaceous plants, semi-shrubs, shrubs and trees represented by some 730 genera, and 19,400 species. The flowers are gathered in racemes, rarely solitary.The sepals are five, joined in a calyx. The petals are also five with a different size each. The superior one is the largest and it is called ... [more]
The members of the Fagaceaefamily are mostly trees and less often shrubs, evergreen and deciduous with simple alternately arranged leaves. The flowers are unisexual, monoecious and collected in male and female inflorescences, pollinated by the wind. The fruit is a nut in a splitting cup-like hardened shell covered with scales ... [more]
The Geraniaceaefamily consists of angiosperm plants numbering some 800 species divided in 7 to 10 genera. These are grasses, and rarely semi-shrubs and shrubs. The leaves are simple, whole or uncut with stipules. The flowers are in cyme (top) inflorescences.The fruit is a dry capsule, splitting in five lobes supplied with mechanisms ... [more]
The Gesneriaceaefamilyincludes 150 genera and3,200 species of flowering plants. They are wide spread in the tropical climatic zones.In their morphology they are close to species in the Scrophulariaceaefamily and are primarily herbaceous,rarely trees, shrubs and lianas. Their leaves are uncut and fleshy.The fruit is a capsule containing small seeds with endosperm.Large part of the species comprises in relict members of the Balkan and Iberian peninsulas.The Haberlea rhodopensis Frivis a good example of the family.
The Ginkgoaceaefamilyconsists of seed plants only in the Ginkgophytaorder. It includes the only existing today specie - Ginkgo biloba L., thus, often it is called by the genera name- Ginkgo.It is a deciduous tree some 40 meters of height. The corona of the young trees is wide pyramidal with vertebrae-like skeletal branches,and ... [more]
To the Grossulariaceaefamilybelong approximately 150 species of plants distributed throughout the world. Most genera, except for the Ribesgenius, originated primarily or almost completely in the territory of the South hemisphere. The leaves are alternate simple without stipules. The flowers are regular, bisexual and in cluster ... [more]
The members of the Lamiaceaefamily are widely spread. The familyincludes 200 genera and some 3,500 species. They grow in tropical, subtropical and temperate climates, as well as in thecooler climatic regions.They grow along the seashores of seas and oceans and in the planes and at the foot of the mountains, and even reach high ... [more]
The Lauraceaeor Bay family consists of perennial evergreen plants – trees and shrubs. The familyconsists of more than 2,000 species gathered in 54 genera. They are mainly distributed in the tropical regions of the world with many species in Southeast Asia and South America.
Theirleaves are alternate or opposing without ... [more]
The plants of the Liliaceaefamily are of the Monocot class and represented byapproximately 3,700 species spread throughout the world.They are perennial herbaceous plants with a root system, bulb or tuber, and more rarely semi-shrubs or lianas. The leaves are alternately arranged at the base of the stem or on the stem.They have ... [more]
The Lythraceaefamily includes 31 genera and620 species of shrubs, trees and herbaceous plants.They are spread in the regions of tropical climate where the diversity of species is larger, and the familyalso grows in the temperate climatic zones.
Of this family, in Bulgaria there grows the Lagerstroemia indica L. It is a deciduous ... [more]
The Magnoliaceaefamily consists of angiosperm plants.It includes around 225 species of trees and shrubs divided in 7 genera that are distributed in the Eastern part of North America, Mexico, Central America, the Antilles, the tropical regions of South America, South and East India, Southeast and East Asia.
Their leavesare alternately ... [more]
The Malvaceaefamily consists of flowering plants and includes around 200 genera and2,300 species. Greater significance in this country has the species Hollyhock tree (Hibiscus syriacus L.). It is a deciduous shrub or low tree of 2-5 meters of height метра. The leaves are alternately arranges, egg-shaped and rhomboid, with a ... [more]
The Marantaceaefamily consists of 29 genera with627 species of flowering plantsdistributed in the tropical regions of the world. The largest concentration of members of the family is in America, Africa (with seven genera spread there),and in Asia (six genera).
The Marantaceaeplants are distinguished by their significantly beautifulleaves ... [more]
The Melastomataceaefamily consists of dicotyledonous flowering plantsspread in the tropical climatic regions.It is represented by 200 genera and around4,500 species of annual and perennial grasses, shrubs or small trees.
The leaves are simple, oppositely arranged with a short leaf stalk.The characteristic trait of the species of thefamilyis namely the bow-like veined laminas. From the leaf stalk of the laminas spring several (from3 to 7) same veins that almost from the very base fall apart in a bow and at the top (that in most cases is spiked) they gather.
The Moraceaefamily includes deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs often with milky juice in the different organs. The leaves are arranged alternately or oppositely. They are uncut or cut in lobes. The flowers are unisexual located monoecious or dioecious and gathered in inflorescences.
The familyis extremely rich in species (around1,500), distributed primarily in the tropical countries and only some of them – in the temperate climate zone.As park species in this country, of significance are some representatives of the Mulberry, Fig and other genera.
The Musaceaefamily of angiosperm plants includes around 40 species of large herbaceous plantsspreadin the tropical regions of Africa and Asia.
The bananas, Musa L.genusare herbaceous plants with a powerful rhizome system, and a short underground stem with6 — 20 leaves.Leaf sheaths form a kind of stem (a pseudo-stem) above ... [more]
The Myrsinaceaefamily contains plants of theEricalesorder. It includes35 genera and around1,000 species of plants. The species are widely spread from the temperate to the tropical climatic regions reaching the northern parts of Europe, to Japan, Mexico, Florida and New Zealand, South America and South Africa.
The Myrsinaceaeare ... [more]
The Myrtaceaefamily consists of trees and shrubs that arewidelyspread in the tropical, subtropical and temperate climate regions in Australia and South America. It includes some 150 genera and3,300 species, most of them evergreen. The leaves are most often simple, leathery, alternate, without stipules.The flowers are actynomorphic (regular),often with a 4-5-lobbed calyx and a corolla.The stamens are numerous. The fruit is usually a berry or a capsule, nut.The seeds contain essential oils.
Some of the members are well suited for growing at home, yet require quite large containers.Some of the family plants have economic significance.
The Nepenthaceaefamilyconsists of insectivore shrubs and lianas.They are spread in the tropical woods of Madagascar, Shree Lanka, Northeast India, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, North Australia, New Caledonia. The greatest diversity is on Borneo and Sumatrawhere a large number of endemic plants are found.
The leaves – part of them are modified in a trap with a peristome and an operculium – a lid(the nectar to catch insects and the digestive glands are part of the trap).The flowers are small unisexual in cluster-like racemes. The pollination is antomophilic (insect-pollinated). The fruitis a capsule, the seeds are fibrous and small.
The Nyctaginaceaefamilyconsists of some 33 genera and290 species of flowering plants naturally spread in the tropical and subtropical regions (with the largest number of species in the tropical regions of America).These are grasses, shrubs, more rarely trees and lianas. Their leaves are opposite without stipules. The leaves ... [more]
The Nymphaeaceaefamilyconsists of aquatic angiospermherbaceous plants. Some species form powerful rhizomes to live through the unfavorable periods and to propagate. The leaves float on the water surface or are submerged arranged on a long stalk (the Nymphaea alba L species has leaves as long as 5 meters). The floating leaves ... [more]
The Oleaceaefamily consists of angiosperm plantsand includes 24 genera andapproximately 600 species of shrubs andtrees, more rarely lianas.Some of them form mixed woods, others– vast thickets, a third group comprise an original habitat known as the herbaceous bush savannas, while a forth group even penetrates the semi-desert ... [more]
The Orchidaceae familyis one of the most numerous families in the world, with its described 800 genera and25,000 species, growing primarily in the tropical regions. In Bulgaria are found only herbaceous perennial plants, while in thetropical regions there grow epiphytes and lianas. The flowersare irregular, bisexual. The perianth ... [more]
The Oxalidaceae are a small family containing 8 genera of herbaceous plants, shrubs and smalltrees. Most of them, with a variety of approximately 900 species, belong to the Oxalis L.genus. The members of this familyusually have separateleavesthat move – they spread out in the light and gather in darkness. The speciesof the familyare naturally spread inSoutheast Asia, South Africa andSouth America.
The Pandanaceaefamily includes 4 genera and more than900 species of trees and shrubs spread in the tropical and subtropical regions. It is thought they originated in West Africa. The members often are wrongly called palms because of their outer likenesses with the Palmaceae family.
The Pandanaceaeare rapidly growing plants ... [more]
The Passifloraceae are afamily of flowering plantsthat includes 27 genera andapproximately 350 species. Its members are trees, shrubs, lianas and climbing plants spread primarily in the tropical region of the world.
The Passifloragenus originated in North America,South America andAustralia.The genus includes more than 500 species ... [more]
The Phormiaceaefamilyconsists of up to 7 genera andapproximately 36 species spread in the tropical and subtropical regions in all continents, except for Europe.The greatest diversity of members is in Africa, Southeast Asia, Australia,NewZealand, the islands in the Pacific Ocean and in South America. In Australiaalone there are ... [more]
The speciesof the Pinaceaefamily aretrees, more rarelyshrubsthe better part of which are evergreenplants. They are spread in the temperate climate latitudes in the Northern hemisphere (form the subarctic to the equatorial regions) or high up in the mountains, and form the polar and top tree line.Including 220-250 speciesdivided ... [more]
The Piperaceae are a large family of plantswith approximately 3,600 speciesdivided at present in five genera. The members of the Piperaceae family are perennial or annual plants, primarily shrubs, lianas, and rarely trees. They are spread mainly in the tropical regions ofSouth America and East India.
Their stems are simple ... [more]
The Pittosporaceaefamilyincludes a group of floweringplants in approximately 9-10 genera and200 species. It is spread from the tropical to the temperate climate latitudes. The plants are trees orshrubs;some have ciliates and sometimes thorns.The leaves are simple, opposite with oval or sharp peaks of the leaf lamina, rarely with serrated edge. The flowersarebisexual, sometimes unisexual, regular – actynomorphic, rarely irregular– zygomorphic. The fruit is a capsule.
The Poaceaeare a family of monocot plants. It numbers approximately 600 genera and10 000 speciesof primarily herbaceous plantsof which 181 genera and941 species originated in South Africa.
The stems are thin, hollow, cylindrical, divided into nodes and internodes.They branch out at the base near the soil. The leaves are thin, ... [more]
Podocarpaceae is one of the largest families of coniferous plants consisting of 19 genera and140 species.They grow in shady and humid habitats primarily in the Southern Hemisphere.A small number of the Podocarpaceaeare found in India and East Asia.
The Podocarpaceae areevergreen trees, rarelyshrubs. The leaves range from large to smaller in size, egg-shaped or often linear or linear-spear-shaped in form. Podocarpaceae are primarily са dioecious, rarely monoecious plants.
Some genera are used as ornamental plants, as is the Podocarpus Persoongenus suitable and often used in the Chinese art of bonsai.
The Polypodiaceaefamily contains more than60 genera andapproximately 1,000 species of fern plants. Most of them are epiphytes (organisms that live attached to a live plant, yet they do not parasitize on it).
In this family the reproductive organs – sporangia, are gathered in groups (sori) of different sizes.They originate ... [more]
The Pontederiaceaefamily was classified in the Commelinalesorderin 2003. Thisfamily consists of heterostyled aquatic plantsin the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The Heterostylia (used to evade self pollination) is a phenomenon seen in the structure of the flowers of some plantsstudied and described by Charles ... [more]
The Portulacaceaefamilynumbers approximately 20 genera and500 speciesofherbaceous or shrub-likeplants. The leaves are uncut, alternate and opposing, usually fleshy with a stipule. The flowersare solitary or in inflorescences, bisexual, with a well shaped perianth consisting of 2 free or basally attached sepals and4-6 accrete at the base petals. The number of stamens may be 2-4 times bigger than the number of the petals. The seed-vessel is one; the ovary is of unilocular containing one or many ova.The fruit is usually a capsule.
Spread globally primarily in the dry regions of North America and the Andes.
The Primulaceaefamilyis represented by 28 genera andby approximately 1,000 species. It is spread globally primarily in the temperate latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.The Primulaceaeareperennial or annual herbaceous plants. The leavesare opposite, alternate or gathered in a rosette, simple with uncut edges, often covered ... [more]
The Pteridaceae are afamily of fern plants of the Polypodialesorder.Most members of this familygrow in rock crevices, while others thrive in the soil. The leaves are almost always complex, the soria lie linearly on the periphery.Usually the organs for sexless propagation are not covered with an indusial of their own, and the ... [more]
The family of the Ranunculaceaeconsists of herbaceous,and more rarely shrub plants. The leaves of the Ranunculaceaecan be simple, and more rarely, complex, arranged alternately or opposing each other, there are no stipules.
The flowersare bisexual, regular or more rarely irregular, solitary or gathered in a cluster raceme or ... [more]
The members of the Rhamnaceaefamily are shrubs or short and rarely higher trees and climbing plants. It is represented by approximately 50 – 60 genera and approximately 890 – 900 species. Rhamnaceae are spreadwidely throughout the world, but are most characteristic of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
The ... [more]
The Rosaceae are a familyofdicotyledonous plantsthat includes 100 - 120 genera and more than3,000 speciesoftrees, shrubs, semi-shrubs,as well as herbaceous plants.The leavesare alternate or opposing, simple or complex, most have stipules. The flowersare usually bisexual, solitary or gathered in inflorescences, regular, with ... [more]
The Rubiaceaeare annual orperennial herbaceous plants, shrubs ortrees. The familyconsists of 611 genera andof approximately 13,000 species spread in the greatest variety in the tropical climatic zones of the world. Characteristic of the speciesof the familyis that their leaves are arranged oppositely and quite often several of them in nodes. Their flowershave a four-lobed corolla accreted at the bottom to form a tube.
The familyalso includes the coffee tree (Coffea arabica L.). In Bulgaria there are naturally spread 6 genera withapproximately 60 species of herbaceous plants orsemi-shrubs.
The familyconsists of 9 species and3 genera. The leaves are small or reduced. The plantsare monoecious ordioecious. The seed-vessel of the maleflowers is rudimentary (stunted), maybe even missing. The flowersare small, regular, 3-lobed, cyclic, gathered in cluster-shaped inflorescences. The number of stamens is3 or6, with a perianth. The seed-vesselis 3-locular. The fruits are fleshy, usually red in color and with 1 or4 seeds.
The members of thefamilyare deciduous orevergreen species with simple or complex leaves arranged most often alternately, and more rarely – oppositely.The flowersare differently structured – bisexual, unisexual, of dioecious ormonoecious location. Most of the speciescontain powerful aromatic substances in the fruits and in the vegetative parts. The familyincludes approximately 1,000 speciesspread primarily in the tropical regions, and some in the temperate zones of Europe.
The Salviniaceaefamilyincludes twogenera –the Azolla Lam.genus and theSalvinia Séggenus. The members of thefamilyare aquatic fern-like plants. They originate from the tropical parts of South America.
A typical member of the family is theSalvinia natans (L.) All., a species of fern-like plant of the Salviniaceaefamily. ... [more]
The Saxifragaceaeare afamilyof dicotyledonous plants of the Saxifragalesorder.It includes approximately 460 speciesthat arespread all over the world with the greatest concentration is in East Asia and North America.
The leaves are simple alternately or oppositely arranged. The flowersare bisexual, rarelyunisexual. The fruits are berries or capsules.
InBulgaria there are naturally spread 4 genera with30 speciesof the family of which 6 species are protected by the Law on Biological Diversity: Chrysosplenium Tourn.ex L.,Saxifraga L., Parnassia L.,Ribes L.
The Scrophulariaceaeare a family of angiosperm plants of the Lamialesorder. It includes primarily herbaceous plants, spread throughout the world mostly in the temperate zone.
The flowersarebisexual. The calyxis formed by5 accrete sepals. The corolla is of five accrete petals, sometimes bilabial.Often the flowershave spores. The stamensare usually 4, rarely 2 – speedwell (Veronica L.) or5 – mullein (Verbascum L.). The ovary is superior of two accrete stipules.InBulgaria the members of thefamilyare more than 150 species of27 genera. Protected by the Law on Biological Diversity are 32 species of the family.
The Solanaceaeare afamily of angiosperm plantsrepresented by more than 2,500 species inapproximately 90 generain present day flora of the planet having originated in Central and South America. Most of them are edible, others — poisonous, while some have both edible and poisonous parts.
The flowersare usually conical or ... [more]
The Sterculiaceaefamilyis represented by 70 genera and over 1,500 species plants, primarily trees and shrubs.They are close relatives with the Malvaceae andTiliaceaefamilies. Their leaves are simple, uncut, and alternate, with early falling off stipules. The fruit is berry-shaped or a capsule. They are spreadin the tropical climatic regions of the world.
The Strelitziaceae are afamily of monocot flowering plants. The Strelitziaceae are similar in appearance with the members of the family Musaceae f (Musaceae).In some classifications the Strelitziaceaegenera are included in the Musaceae family, but as a whole they are recognized as a separate family in theAPG II system (for classification ... [more]
The members of theTaxaceaefamilyare highly branched small trees orshrubs with needle-shaped or linear lancet leaves. The leaves of yews are evergreen, spirally arranged with light green or white stripes on the inferior side. Most species aredioecious, more rarelymonoecious.
The generative organs are located within their ‘bosom’.The ... [more]
The members of the Taxodiaceaefamilyare evergreen ordeciduous treeswith needle- or integument-shaped leavesarranged spirally, more rarely oppositely on the branches.The generative organs are arranged monoeciously. The male tassels are topical or bosom and the cones are topical.The cone integuments (scales) result from the accreted ... [more]
The Theaceae are afamily of plantsconsisting of approximately 1,100 species. These are trees andshrubs with simple leaves, most of them evergreen. Most of the genera are spread only in East Asia, some in South and Central America, three of them inAfrica. Of highest economic significance is the tea (Camellia sinensis).
The Tiliaceaefamily includes 45 genera andapproximately 700 species spread primarily in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Only the lime (Tilia L.)genus has adopted itself to the regionswith temperate and cooler climate. The Tiliaceaeplants are primarily deciduous trees andshrubs.The plantsof the familyhave bisexual ... [more]
The members of the Ulmaceaefamily are deciduous trees with alternately arranged leaves andunisexual orbisexual flowers, solitary or gathered in inflorescences. The fruit is a winged nut or drupe.
The Ulmaceaefamily is represented in15 generawhich include approximately 130 species. It is spread in the temperate, subtropical ... [more]
The Urticaceaeare afamily of angiosperm plantsthat includes approximately 2,600 speciesunited according to different classifications in 54 to79 genera. They are most often shrubs orherbaceous plants, although there are also several dendriform genera.
The leaves are alternate or opposite, withstipules.The raceme is cymose (topical). ... [more]
The members of the Verbenaceaefamilyare annual and perennial herbs, shrubs andtrees. TheVerbenaceae family includes 100 genera and2,600 speciesoften characterized with quadrangular branches and/or their aromatic essential oils content.The leaves are opposite, simple, without a stipule. The flowersare almost always bisexual and ... [more]
The Vitaceaeare a family ofdicotyledonous flowering plants represented in 12 genera and700 species. It consists of liana shrubs, (more rarely of trees),andherbaceous plants.The name of the familyoriginates from the name of the genera Vitis – ‘grape vine’ and it has a great economic significance more specifically in the production of grapes consumed fresh or used for the production of wine.
The speciesof the Vitaceaefamily are spread primarily in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. As ornamental species are used the members of twogenera – Grape vine (Vitis L.) and Parthenocissus Planch.
The Woodsiaceae are a family of rock ferns that consists of 15 genera and of approximately 700 species. The familyfalls within the Polypodialesorderin the Polypodiopsidaclass. It includes three generaof fernplants:Cheilanthopsis L., Hymenocystis C.A.Mey, andWoodsia R.Br. The members of the first two mentioned above generaare quite similar to the Woodsia R.Br.Nevertheless, they are separated as follows:
The members of the Woodsiaceae family are spread almost all over the world but most diverse are their speciesin the regions with temperate climate and in the mountainous tropical zones.
The Zamiaceae are afamily of plantsbelonging to the Cycadalesorder that is divided in two subfamilies with 8 genera and150 species. They are spread in thetropical regions ofAfrica, Australia, North and South America. In outer appearance they resemble palms and even ferns, yet, genetically they are not connected with these plants.
The ... [more]
The Zingiberaceaefamilyis represented by approximately25 genera and more than 1,000 species. They are spread in the tropical regions,with the most species growing in Southeast Asia.
Thefamilyincludes perennial plants mostly such with climbing horizontal or tuberous roots. The leaves arelinear or elliptic. The flowersare bisexual, ... [more]