The Ginkgoaceaefamilyconsists of seed plants only in the Ginkgophytaorder. It includes the only existing today specie - Ginkgo biloba L., thus, often it is called by the genera name- Ginkgo.It is a deciduous tree some 40 meters of height. The corona of the young trees is wide pyramidal with vertebrae-like skeletal branches,and in the old trees it becomes oval in shape.It produces a large number of shortened branches that are cylindrical and covered with thickly arranged traces of the fallen leaves. Theshortened stalks of the leaves are set in groups, while upon the elongated ones – they are arranged consecutively. They are up to10 cmlong and 10-12 cmwide and fan-shaped and differently and deeply cut at the top.In autumn they become bright yellow in color.
The generative organs are unisexual and of dioecious location. They form on the shortened branches.The male organs are inflorescence-like, 3-4 cm long, and the female ones are highly modified leavesupon which are formed two ovules.Usually just one of them develops and forms a seed on a long stem. The seed has an egg-oval shaped form, 2-3 cm long, and covered with yellow fleshy cover with unpleasant smell. The inner lining is hard and with 2-3 longitudinal edges, thus the seeds resemble this is a drupe fruit.
Ginkgo is a relict species from China and at present there are preserved only cultivated plants.In China the tree has been cultivated since the 11 century, and in Japan, since the 12 century. It was brought to Europe in 1727.Originally in Holland, and then it was widely used in West and South Europe as a beautiful park tree.
Ginkgo needs a lot of light, as well as fresh and rich in calcium soils.It is cold-resistant and endures temperatures as low as -25, -30°C. It also fairly well endures garden conditions and air polluted with smoke and dust, and is therefore highly appreciated.